MIDAlpha TitleTitleYearColor/BWRunning TimeFormatsAbstractTopics
4523CRUCIBLE OF EUROPE, THE (9TH TO 15TH CENTURIES)CRUCIBLE OF EUROPE, THE (9TH TO 15TH CENTURIES)1984color61 min (Heritage: Civilization and the Jews series, Part 4) Covers the period from the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire in the 10th century to the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492--a period in which Jewish, Christian and Moslem cultures were in constant interaction. For Jews life in the Christian world was attractive but often difficult, for the bitterness of religious differences between Christians and Jews had become institutionalized. The disastrous course of events trapped the Jewish people into politically and economically untenable positions and forced them to retreat towards the lands of Eastern Europe. Yet in this period of trial there emerged vigorous new forms of Jewish tradition and culture. (withdrawn)